Raamat “Forest Bioenergy for Europe” on põhjalik analüüs bioenergia kasutamise võimalustest ja väljakutsetest Euroopas. Raamatu toimetajad Paavo Pelkonen, Mika Mustonen, Antti Asikainen, Gustaf Egnell, Promode Kant, Sylvain Leduc and Davide Pettenella on koondanud seeriasse ‘What Science Can Tell Us’kuuluvasse raamatusse 12 maad esindava 28 instituudi töö tulemused selles vallas. Uuringute põhjal tehtud järeldused ja edasist uurimist vajavad teemad on lühidalt esitatud raamatu kokkuvõttes.
Raamat on leitav aadressilt: http://www.efi.int/files/attachments/publications/efi_wsctu_4_net.pdf
Of all forms of renewable energy, bioenergy is easily the most versatile that can be converted to solid, liquid, gaseous states, and as electricity, enabling its carriage to end consumers through the existing energy supply networks. Biomass provides about 10?15% of the global total primary energy supply, of which 60% is used in traditional households mostly in developing countries, some 25% for heat and power generation largely in developed countries, and the remaining in informal sectors such as charcoal and brick making, almost entirely in developing countries. Forests form the largest source of biomass that becomes available when the opportunity and transportation costs are favorable for energy production, and the negative consequences for biodiversity conservation, soil fertility and local usage are within acceptable limits.
More than 10 million ha of set-aside fields are presently available in the EU for the cultivation of dedicated biomass tree crops. Cultivation of this and possible other suitable land areas needs appropriate policies that reward short rotation tree cultivation for bioenergy and reduce uncertainties that deter the private sector from investing in new technologies. An important objective of the European bioenergy policy has been the decentralisation of renewable energy production leading to the increased utilisation of local energy sources, improved local energy security, shorter transport distances and lowered transmission losses.
The enormously increased demand for biomass in the European market presents large economic opportunities for several countries even as it also raises severe challenges of sustainability. Russia, with its vast forest resources and physical proximity, is the biggest potential source of biomass both as wood and also as syngas after blending with natural gas and using the existing gas pipeline network. Belarus also has good potential for export to EU with careful monitoring against radiation exposure. Pellet supplies from North America are environmentally compatible with EU sustainability requirements, but would likely diminish over the coming decades as domestic needs grow. Improving social and environmental sustainability of sourcing biomass from Brazil would be necessary before its natural advantages as biomass producer could bring large benefits to all stakeholders. Africa should benefit from increased demand for the biomass it can produce at low costs, but social sustainability of large scale production will remain a central challenge. Measures taken by the EU to ensure sustainability should be WTO compatible.
Dr Promode Kant
Member, FAO’s Asia Pacific Forest Policy Think Tank
Director, Institute of Green Economy (IGREC)
B 108, Parsvnath Prestige, Sector 93A